Don’t outsource your business logic

Just another Monday morning, and Dwayne The Developer is ready to start cranking code. The business needs an object to make, track and approve holiday requests. Dwayne, being a conscientious sort, and having heard that Interfaces Are A Good Thing™, starts by writing:

interface IHolidays {
  // returns the holiday ID from the database
  int Request(Employee emp, DateTime start, DateTime finish);
  void Approve(Employee manager, int holidayId);
  void Reject(Employee manager, int holidayId, string reason);
  bool IsApproved(int holidayId);

Yay, Liskov and all that good stuff, right?


Sharon The Architect happens to be wandering by Dwayne’s desk, and sees what he’s writing. She asks why he’s made the business object an interface, and, not being satisfied with a few incoherent mumbles about SOLID, points out that Dwayne has just outsourced the business logic of this module, without gaining any of the benefits of dependency injection or inversion of control.

Interfaces are much like outsourcing: a software house might outsource non-core tasks such as designing the public website, internationalising the UI, designing icons or writing a custom SAP integration module. A sensible software house would seldom outsource its “secret sauce” – the core code that makes or breaks the app (I’ve seen some people do this, and it never ends well).

An interface essentially outsources a task: it says “here is a method that does X; I don’t care who does it or how, just do it and deliver me the result”.

There point is that there is no point in ever having a different implementation of IHolidays, because that object IS the application.

These things are good candidates for wrapping inside interfaces:

  • Database calls
  • SMTP and SMS APIs
  • Message queueing systems
  • File systems
  • Third-party APIs

Each of these is something with complicated internal logic that isn’t relevant to the business logic that your real objects are implementing – think of them as “stuff that does stuff and returns a result, where I don’t really know or care how that stuff happens”.

Because they aren’t part of the business logic, they’re excellent candidates for mocking during unit tests. We don’t need to test whether System.IO.File.Delete works; we just need to know what happens to our code when it does or doesn’t.

So what should our holiday object look like? Tune in next time to find out…